Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in canines: An update
Anand Kumar Singh, Wani Ilyas, Neeraj Thakur and Alok Singh
Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is primary and principal disease seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the etiology and pathogenesis remains poorly understood and is often misdiagnosed. During acute conditions, it possesses the potential for complete recovery but in chronic pancreatitis manifested by persistent pain, recovery is compromised and can lead to several dysfunctions within the body. Pancreas is among one of the organs within the body that possesses both exocrine and endocrine functions. Dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) secrete inadequate amount of essential digestive enzymes, which lead to malabsorption and maldigestion clinically manifested by anorexia, digestive disturbances, weight loss and loss of general body condition. Diagnosis of pancreatitis remains a challenge to veterinarians and most cases require a battery of tests including imaging, hematology and biochemical analysis. Various therapies are used for dog’s suffering from EPI, but by far the most successful is pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in association with dietary modification. This article reviews the outline of pancreas, prevalence, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment with special focus on exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs.